Native Planet > Health > Tropical and Travel Diseases 3

Geographic Location Symptoms Transmission
Leishmaniasis    
Amebiasis    
Giardiasis    
Schistosomiasis

S. Mansoni in South America and the Caribbean (also in Africa and S. Haematobium in Africa and Middle East, and S. Japonicum in Japan, China and South East Asia).

Skin penetration is often asymptomatic. Some people feel a tingling sensation and develop a temporary rash. Six to Eight weeks after infection: high fever, chills and gastrointestinal problems.

Chronic Schistosomiasis: enlarged liver and spleen. Eggs in stools and urine.

Chronic parasitic infection (liver, bladder, lungs, heart and brain). Schistosome eggs hatch in fresh water. Transmission happens while swimming in contaminated water. Larvae enter wet skin and become adult in liver. Adult worms deposit eggs in intestines (S. Mansoni and S. Haematobium) or in the blader (S. Japonicum). The parasite is carried by a snail. Avoid waters infested with snails.
Traveler’s Diarrhea    
Yellow Fever    
Hepatitis A

All countries with poor sanitary habits. Especially all developing countries.

Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, muscle aches, joint pain, headache, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fever. A few days later darkening of urine and possible clay-colored stools. Later with those symptoms, the skin and eyes become yellowish (jaundice). Often accompanied by right-sided abdominal tenderness.

Those symptoms appear at different time after exposure depending on the type of hepatitis. A: 15 to 45 days; B: 30 to 180 days; C: 20 to 90 days; E: 15 to 60 days).

Hepatitis affects the liver, but can also affect: blood cells, blood vessels, skin, joints, lungs, heart, kidney, pancreas, and nervous system.

Fecal-oral route. Poor personal hygiene, washed, uncooked or undercooked food (especially shellfish next to sewage), dishwashing, water.
Hepatitis B

All countries with poor sanitary habits. Especially all developing countries.

  Blood or body fluid contact (including saliva)
Hepatitis C

All countries with poor sanitary habits. Especially all developing countries.

  Blood or body fluid contact (including saliva)
Fungal infections

(skin rashes)

  D: Same transmission as B, but usually occurs after contracting B

E: Similar to A. Epidemic often occurs during big floods.

Bacterial skin infections (open sores, cuts)    
Chagas Disease

Rural Latin America:

Honduras in following regions: Choluteca, Comayagua, Copan, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Intibuca, La Paz, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Yoro.

Nicaragua in following regions: Esteli, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Nueva Segovia, Rivas.

Costa Rica in the province of Guanacaste

Panama in the province of Chiriqui and in the valley of the rio Chagres.

Other countries: Mexico, and all South America

After a week violent swelling appears at the site of the bite, usually on the face. Often adults don’t show any sign of the chronic heart disease developing until heart problems or heart failure occur years later.  

The Kissing Bug

The 2cm long insect is brown, has a long narrow cone-shaped head with two antennae and a proboscis which curves under the head and ends in a groove in the upper part of the thorax. On the side of the abdomen, light yellow or red narrow stripes alternate with dark brown. The insect is nocturnal and hides during the day in the cracks of walls and in thatch or palm frond roofs (so mainly huts). It can bite any exposed part of the body but usually prefers the face.

Cholera—caused by Vibrio cholerae    
Dengue fever

All tropical countries of Central America and Mexico, Caribbean, South Pacific and Asia. Many countries of South America and Africa.

Sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, joint and muscle pain and fatigue. These initial symptoms are very similar to malaria. Vomiting, nausea and rash follows. The rash usually appears 3 to 5 days after the fever and may spread from torso to arm, legs and face. (It could be confused with the measles). Moskito Aedes aegypti. Diurnal, feeds mainly on humans and is found next to habitation. Stings mainly in the morning and late afternoon, but can be active at any time of the day.
Filariasis (one type of roundworm) --lymphatic filariasis (bancroftian or malayan filariasis) and subcutaneous filariasis (onchocerciasis—a.k.a. river blindness) and loiasis    
Typhoid Fever—caused by Salmonella typhi    
Tropical ulcer    
Rabies    
Worms    
Leptospirosis—caused by bacteria in the urine of domestic livestock, dogs, and small rodents    
Hanta virus    
Cutaneous Larva Migrans (caused by various roundworms - nematodes

Worldwide (but higher risks on tropical beaches with presence of dogs or cats)

Mild itching and nonspecific papules may occur and subside. After several days larva begins to migrate, producing a tortuous, linear track with pruritus and erythema. Lesions advance a few millimeters to a few centimeters each day. Transmitted through dog or cat feces. Skin exposure (most common through the feet)
Myasis (infestation by larvae of flies)

Latin America and Africa

Typical lesion associated with movement. Often leads to secondary infections. The botfly fixes its eggs on insects bites. All insect bites could potentially lead to larvae infection.
CutaneTungiasis

Latin America and Africa. Usually but not only sand beaches.

The sand flea enters the skin where it resides in the epidermis and gows to the size of a small pea. The posterior of the flea remains in contact with the air. Pus-filled, itchy papules form around the protruding posterior of the flea, often leading to secondary infections. The sand flea enters the skin where it resides in the epidermis and grows to the size of a small pea. The posterior of the flea remains in contact with the air. Pus-filled, itchy papules form around the protruding posterior of the flea, often leading to secondary infections.

Check the Disease Occurrence and Risk by Country


Health Links

http://www.msstate.edu/Archives/History/Latin_America/ The Yellow Book Online - Health information for International Travel 1996-97

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
World Health Organization
U.S. State Department Travel Warnings
International Society of Travel Medicine
Shoreland,Inc.
IAMAT
Outbreak
Alameda Travel Vaccination Center
Plants of the Machiguenga
University of Montana Pharmacy
The Multimedia Medical Reference Library
Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University

http://weber.u.washington.edu/~travmed/index.html   UWMC Travel Medicine Service (University of Washington Medical Center)

The Travel Medicine Service at University of Washington Medical Center (UWMC) offers complete medical travel services. Health care experts from the University of Washington School of Medicine and UWMC provide up-to-date pre-travel advice and health care. Post-travel treatment for tropical illnesses is also available. To schedule an appointment call (206) 548-4888.